Why the United States dominates the Nobel Prize

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More than eight of the 13 Nobel Laureates this year are American citizens, expanding the historic trend in the power of American universities and the ability to attract the world’s best talent.

American universities consistently dominate the “Global Top 100” rankings, with a mix of magnificent giving and a private “Ivy League” with leading state universities.

Since the first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901, the United States has won 400 medals, followed by the United Kingdom with 138 medals and Germany with 111 medals. These figures include people from several countries.

“I am truly grateful for the opportunity given to me in this country,” said Ardem Patapoutian, co-winner of the 2021 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on neural receptors linked to touch in the United States. Is indicated as follows. Press conference after his victory.

An Armenian-American who grew up in Lebanon recognized his success with the state-funded system of the University of California, where he obtained a bachelor’s and post-doctoral degree, and the Scripps Institute, which has two bases . paddy field. Decades.

The University of California also has David Julius, a co-laureate from the University of California at San Francisco. In total, UC staff and faculty members won 70 Nobel Prizes. This is one of the totals earned by France, the fourth largest country.

Basic search

Atsushi Manabe, co-winner of this year’s Physics Awards, who left Japan in the 1950s for groundbreaking climate model research in Princeton, NJ, could go where curiosity has taken him in the United States. I told reporters that I was able to do it. To its success.

Co-laureate in chemistry, David McMillan is also a professor at Princeton University, which left Scotland for the United States in the 1990s and received a bachelor’s degree from Maria Ressa, who won the Philippino American Peace Award. in 1986. ..

Monday’s economics awards were shared by Canadian-American David Card, Israeli-American Joshua Angrist (both from Princeton University) and American-Dutch Guido Invens (Stanford University).

Funding basic research, defined as research aimed at improving understanding of scientific theory and subject matter, is at the heart of America’s victory, said David Baltimore, 1975 Nobel Prize in Medicine co-winner. I told AFP.

This is a “leak indicator”. Indeed, compared to applied research, dividends can often be paid unpredictably after years or decades.

“It is also the strength of our research institutes and universities that dates back to the founding of Harvard University centuries ago, and their continued support is uninterrupted,” said the California Institute of Technology. Baltimore, honorary president and distinguished professor of biology, added.

The emphasis on basic research in the United States dates back to the aftermath of World War II and the founding of the National Science Foundation in 1950. Federal funding I went to college today.

Philanthropy and private donations are also playing an increasingly important role in funding.

China is catching up with the United States in terms of total research funding ($ 469 billion vs. $ 569 billion adjusted for purchasing power parity in 2017), but challenges related to academic freedom and ability to attract talent that I have. American Chemical Society.

Reward young people and immigrants

Just as a wealthy country with a strong sports infrastructure dominates international competitions like the Olympics, being the world’s largest economy makes the United States a scientific powerhouse.

“For example, scientists will find more job opportunities not only in universities, but also in industry, government laboratories and other opportunities,” Chen told AFP.

Mark Kastner, professor emeritus of physics at MIT, added that American universities have long provided their own laboratories for talented young researchers.

“In places like Europe and Japan, there were large groups led by very experienced teachers, and young people only came in when they retired, and by then they no longer had their skills. better ideas. I don’t necessarily have it, ”he said.

For example, Harvard neurobiologist Catherine Dulac won the 2021 Breakthrough Prize for her research on parenting instincts, but it was precisely for this reason and for the sexism that she decided to return to France in her twenties. She told AFP last year that she refused.

Looking to the future, some fear that the decline in the number of immigrants could jeopardize American excellence.

Stefano Bertuzzi, who emigrated from Italy and is now CEO of the American Society for Microbiology, told AFP:

But lately he and Kastner have become concerned about the growing trend of foreign exclusion and nationalism, which is pulling the United States away from the destination of choice.

This is especially true for Chinese students who came under the scanner during the administration of former President Donald Trump due to espionage concerns.

Nobel laureate in physics says Italian research is underfunded

© 2021 AFP

Quote: Why the United States dominates the Nobel Prize (October 12, 2021) Obtained from October 12, 2021 https://phys.org/news/2021-10-states-domates-nobels.html

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