Since 2000, China has entered a phase where it is globally building a moderately prosperous society that benefits more than a billion people. The objective of building this moderately prosperous society in all respects has three fundamental elements: first, elements of constantly increasing modernization; second, constantly increasing socialist elements; third, adding Chinese cultural elements. The three constitute the goal of the first hundred years of socialist modernization with unique Chinese characteristics. How did the CPC Central Committee set the first 100-year goal? What are the quantitative indicators? And how was it viewed? This article assesses and summarizes the construction of a moderately prosperous society in all its aspects, and this includes the four main objectives and indicators, such as economic development, innovation-driven development, people’s well-being, and natural resources and the environment. .
An assessment of economic development objectives
China’s economic power has grown dramatically. The country’s GDP in 2020 is 5.28 times greater than it was in 2000, exceeding the target of “quadruple”, and its average annual growth rate reached 8.7%, which is also above that of the United States (1.3%), Japan (0.6%), and the EU (0.9%). China’s contribution to global economic growth has reached around 30%, making it the greatest source of vitality for global economic development. China has also built a world-class, ultra-large-scale modern city cluster, which has become one of the main engines of China’s economic development.
An assessment of innovation-driven development goals
China’s R&D expenditure-to-GDP ratio has increased significantly, reaching 2.4% by 2020, but it has failed to meet its R&D intensity target (2.5%). The number of patent applications has increased sharply; he took a leap forward to become the first in the world. The rate of contribution of scientific and technological progress to China has increased significantly, and the effect of innovation-oriented development has improved. The proportion of the population with fixed broadband subscriptions has been close to the average level of developed countries, and China has become the largest information society, network society and digital society in the world. In general, the 2020 global goals for China’s scientific and technological development have been successfully met.
An assessment of people’s well-being goals
Per capita disposable income of residents in China has increased significantly, and based on private consumption in purchasing power parity terms, daily per capita income in China has increased from $ 2.75 to $ 20.9 : it went from ranking the poorest countries in the world to that of now considered a middle-income country. The average number of years of schooling of the working-age population has increased. The volume of new urban jobs has increased, far exceeding the targets set in the four “five-year” plans, and China’s rate of contribution to global job creation has risen to around 30%. By 2020, the rural poverty rate has been reduced to zero percent, which means China has solved the global problem of ecological poverty, ending absolute poverty (which had lasted for thousands of years) and created a miracle in the history of poverty reduction. The participation rate in basic old-age insurance increased to 1 billion. Average life expectancy increased from 71.4 years in 2000 to 77.5 years in 2020, and China has achieved universal access to basic medical and health services, thus increasing the level of health capital for all .
An assessment of the nation’s natural resources and environmental objectives
The amount of cultivated land in China remains stable. Water consumption for 10,000 yuan of GDP continues to drop significantly. Energy consumption per unit of GDP has fallen considerably. The share of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption has increased significantly. China’s national carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of GDP) met the original target ahead of schedule. China’s forest development growth rate has jumped and it now ranks among the best in the world. Air quality has improved considerably. The quality of surface water has further improved. The total release of the main pollutants has been considerably reduced. In general, the main ecological and environmental protection objectives and tasks in China have been practically achieved, and the ecological and environmental quality has improved in all respects.
It is important to note that in 2020, the sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic did not prevent China from fully achieving its goal of building a moderately prosperous society by 2020. Indeed, China has was the first country in the world to control the pandemic in the shortest and most effective time, demonstrating the great advantages of the socialist system. China was also the first major economy in the world to return to economic growth, demonstrating the enormous resilience and dynamism of the Chinese economy. It was also the first country in the world to provide funds, equipment, technology and test reagents to large-scale countries to fight COVID-19, demonstrating China’s determination and confidence in building the global health community and the contribution of a Chinese solution to the global public. health governance.
This article is written after the first 20 years of the 21st century. China has achieved an important period, seizing strategic opportunities in order to quickly achieve moderate prosperity, and it has exceeded the expectations of the CPC Central Committee and achieved historic overall development. These major changes and major advancements have enabled China to grow rapidly from a global power to a global superpower. The process of seeking revitalization has been synchronized with major global changes, unheard of for a century.
As we enter the 21st century, the international community, especially the western countries led by the United States, has had several problems with China’s rapid and peaceful development. There have been several arguments against China’s rapid and peaceful development, especially among Western countries led by the United States. The first is the “China Collapse Theory,” which apparently collapsed with the development of China; the second is the “Chinese Threat Theory” and the “New Cold War Theory”; the third is the “China Containment Theory”. With the rapid development of China, these arguments become more and more important, while the “theory of China’s contribution” becomes more and more strong. Because the development of a country, especially a large country, generates great dependence and positive externalities, and many countries make a significant contribution to China. Many facts have shown that China’s development has made a significant contribution to human development in the 21st century. As early as 1956, Chairman Mao Zedong prophesied China’s contribution in his article “In Memory of Sun Yat-sen”. He pointed out that forty-five years from now, that is, when we enter the twenty-first century, China’s outlook will be even more drastically changed. China will become a powerful industrial socialist country. This is how China should be, because China is a country with 9.6 million square kilometers of land and a population of 1,400 million; China should make a greater contribution to mankind.
At the beginning of the 21st century, China began to open up to the outside, to participate in economic globalization and to place itself at the center of the world stage with its membership of the World Trade Organization. Relations between China and the world have changed dramatically. Has China made a greater contribution to mankind since entering the 21st century? And how did he do it? What does this mean for the world at large? To answer these questions, we have expended considerable effort in nine major contributions to the world. These include eradicating absolute poverty, promoting economic growth, industrialization, growing trade, increasing global investment, promoting technological innovation, increasing patented inventions, the promotion of scientific research, the development of green energy, the promotion of green development and the promotion of peaceful development.
Finally, the text summarizes that from 2021, China will have embarked on a new “Long March” to achieve the goal of its second centenary: an “era of a society of common prosperity”, where “people’s lives are more important. beautiful and happier, the whole -the comprehensive development of peoples and the common prosperity of all peoples have made substantial progress more evident ”. The income level of China’s 1.4 billion people will be higher, the levels of human capital will be higher, public health will be better, the capacity for human development will be higher, and China will become both a middle income country and a high human development country. Meanwhile, China and the rest of the world will help build an unprecedented community with a common future for mankind, working together to create a better future for all.
Eric Donghao Liu contributed to this article.